freud theory of consciousness pdf

Since the introduction of the theory of Sigmund Freud in the early 1900s and despite the many advancements in the study of psychoanalytic theory Freuds basic thoughts retain a strong hold on the shaping of views regarding the theory of the human mind. There was no such thing as a degree in psychology at the time that he received his education, which can help us understand some of the controversy over his theories today. While his ideas were considered shocking at the time and create debate and controversy even now, his work had a profound influence on a number of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, … According to Freud psychoanalytic theory, the id is the primitive and instinctual part of the mind that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories, the super-ego operates as a moral conscience, and the ego is the realistic part that mediates between the … The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory … 0000003419 00000 n Concurrent with Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, … endobj When reading Freud’s theories, it is important to remember that he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist. 0000001084 00000 n Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. <>>> %���� <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 18 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 93 Furthermore, his most sustained discussion on the topic of consciousness dates from early in his career, leading to uncertainty about how faithful he remained to these ideas during his more mature years. His theoretical thoughts were as original as they were unique. The unconscious and preconscious levels consciousness 3. This placeholder for a longer paper currently being prepared, contains a Chart showing correlations among the theories of consciousness from the following: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Teilhard de Chardin, Patanjali, Christianity, Vedanta, Rudolf theory Walsh,as a stand-alone theory of consciousness, I will mention it at the end of the tive,article in a different role: as an adjunct to a biological theory. Consciousness is something that cannot be touched or felt, it controls our feelings, ourselves and our sensation in the way that it thinks it is suitabl… stream About Sigmund Freud . 0000003380 00000 n “Psychodynamic” refers to all psychological theories of human functioning and personality and can be traced back to Freud’s original formulation of psychoanalysis. Around this little bit of consciousness, during the first year of a Another part of Freud's theory focused on identifying the parts of consciousness. psychoanalytic theory. 0000001238 00000 n Freud wrote comparatively little about consciousness explicitly and seems to have been dissatisfied with his thoughts on the topic. <> Freud originally believed these were memories of actual events (trauma theory), but later concluded that they usually recalled forbidden wishes (wish theory). 2 [Cf. In terms of Freud’s theory, this wish exists on 1. 21 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 23 /H [ 876 208 ] /L 80123 /E 71116 /N 3 /T 79585 >> endobj xref 21 19 0000000016 00000 n The unconscious level only 4. 0000068291 00000 n Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist and physician. It has also been defined as: the awareness, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive-control system of the mind [1]. %PDF-1.3 %���� trailer << /Size 40 /Info 9 0 R /Root 22 0 R /Prev 79575 /ID[<76c192ca4a136e59262ccd454a9a8937><76c192ca4a136e59262ccd454a9a8937>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 22 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 10 0 R /OpenAction [ 23 0 R /XYZ null null null ] /PageMode /UseNone /JT 20 0 R /PageLabels 8 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /S 52 /L 107 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 39 0 R >> stream Freud's theory provides one conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the elements of personality function. This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. 0000006655 00000 n endobj H�|W]�۸ }�_��R=#ǒ�w���m�gۇf���#ѶITEi���@ʶ&�I�X�A�����Ç��\e�����j��9,�n�Zl�K,4�췪�T�h>��c�N�a�X.�k�\> ]�A��"Si�X哘��/MR~��0�V�� �+ת$[�թ�R��۱�B�"4�R�=Ie��=���j�t�.|��1��t��&RQp��fq �F�WU�g�����Q%�&�,6�O�DM��n;���Y���&+�Ϊ�*Y�ŷ$;�L����A�� �9���4UF��̱Kļښ�'I��$Z. Freud was a one of a kind thinker. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud believed that sources and consequences of emotional conflicts operate on three levels of awareness: the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious. from consciousness, leading to physical symptoms. (�@q�cjw�K)ɿ���L7� N�Қ�%{zf��B���ů~��w�|��������|S���勮+��mݕ�+��J�J�����������E��o��@P��߼|��oUї}S�y��**��FUV�Am���ś�/_T�XU��勷���o��鴿1�O�{��~/���r�����_�x�FXV�e�tY��R�e�:���@�@�*�����U��z��|U�ݟ���,�VZ�oA���Ҏ}���!vr�iw?�����a���ݛ���nw�FXV�����[vmfzm�te�(��я�������1�/��^z~�����?>ݞ���w�W_����!a$����m�WU����~5��x��e�/uͶx��Xu]���E�U%�Cc��ȧ��>OI�ھl8��ɂ��N�݈D��ƱM�đ�o˶�@q�J"�����/�.#�jv���XV�ߨC It is a testament to Freud’s mind to know that whether you agree, disagree, or are ambivalent about his theory, it remains as a theoretical cornerstone in his field of expert… ��:n "n �F�LW��kQk�r��q���X��'^?� ������s����3�����E�6����K�KPjw f-1��m��-P$60NV�p�8�4��7�"�i�ۄ�H�� �Ք�z�x�O0�/�pp2tw������1B��}$�:B���@x���]x�'T�����w�n�q�j�{x�ր3�����9�⑙��G(Y���q *~��l�J=τ�ιq���1;��-�2��C]4��"_t/!�Zj��13kd���W�b��K�TCC �.k\o��"�c3:�n,Еj˚�}����]6G5��?1���lE,���A����tx�l��{G��{�jO�O��S��:�{��0��t�>�rx��$ڀZ���8e�#k���FG~@�a#��{�K�S��R��m\?����j�JV��m�Ǐ�Pۡ�QxE�g���wT��%�X=| `�%����]�*�wD��P��"�pj�AAlO�`�����N��yj>�H. Understanding the human mind is at the core of psychoanalytic theory. 0000001397 00000 n 0000000726 00000 n His contribution to determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable. Collective consciousness theory states the human psyche is composed of three parts. Psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic theory have quite a bit in common; in fact, psychoanalytic theory is a sub-theory of psychodynamic theory. The Interpretation of Dreams (1900a), Standard Ed., 4, 133.] 2 0 obj Freud’s theory of infantile sexuality must be seen as an integral part of a broader developmental theory … Freud’s model of the unconscious as the primary guiding influence over daily life, even today, is more specific and detailed than any to be found in contemporary cognitive or social psychology. Infantile Sexuality. 0000002918 00000 n 0000002042 00000 n while Freud has a great present and a yet greater future. There is a constant movement of memories and impulses from one level to another. 0000001829 00000 n H�b```��A �����@)�� �C1�:�~���u��� �30�`Vkzw�%�jX;�Q�fb� �� endstream endobj 39 0 obj 97 endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 10 0 R /Resources 24 0 R /Contents 32 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 24 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 28 0 R /TT4 29 0 R /TT6 30 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 33 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 31 0 R >> >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2034 1026 ] /FontName /LHJOJI+TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 36 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2034 1048 ] /FontName /LHJOHE+Arial,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 35 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2028 1007 ] /FontName /LHJOEJ+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 34 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 408 0 0 0 0 180 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 278 0 564 0 0 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 0 722 333 0 0 611 889 0 722 0 0 667 556 611 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LHJOEJ+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 27 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 117 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 722 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 611 556 0 611 0 278 0 0 0 889 611 611 0 0 389 556 333 611 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LHJOHE+Arial,Bold /FontDescriptor 26 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 722 722 667 611 778 0 389 0 0 0 944 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 0 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 0 500 500 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /LHJOJI+TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 25 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj [ /ICCBased 37 0 R ] endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 3022 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream <> Consciousness as explained in psychology is the fineness or the state of being aware of any external object or something within the oneself, such as thoughts, feelings, memories, or sensations. 0000002527 00000 n Besides creating psychoanalytic psychology with Freud, Jung created two theories still relative to today’s society. … 3 0 obj Freud thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the Id. 0000045496 00000 n Freudian theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis**. Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) is considered to be the founder of the psychodynamic approach to psychology, which looks to unconscious drives to explain human behavior.Freud believed that the mind is responsible for both conscious and unconscious decisions that it makes on the basis of psychological drives.The id, ego, and super-ego are three aspects of the mind Freud … In Freud's view, a balance in the dynamic interaction of the id, ego, and superego is necessary for a healthy personality. All three levels of consciousness but not to the same extent 2. The id is the unconscious reservoir of drives, which are constantly active. 4 0 obj endobj x��=k��Ƒ�U���oG^ya��$��Qr��W$�? 1 [Freud seems himself at one time to have been inclined to accept this theory, as is suggested by a passage in his book on aphasia (1891b, 56 ff.). Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energised or driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure. %PDF-1.5 0000006516 00000 n consciousness and be defined by words like "enigmatic symbol of total mystery." 0000001064 00000 n 0000033444 00000 n Her clinical case baffled Breur, makin… Abstract. Freud (1915) emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalytic theory. It also predicts one's nature of behaviour as how one will behave in a particular situation and one's pattern of adjustment to the ever changing forces of nature.Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality: Psychoanalysis as a system or school of Psychology was the brainchild of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), a Viennese physician. C. George Boeree: Personality Theories Sigmund Freud Introduction ... wish or drive breaking into consciousness. - 168 - the existence and mode of operation of the mental unconscious.1 Freud also developed a theory about the contents of the Unconscious, its origin in childhood psychosexual development, and how and why it is repressed, or pushed out of conscious awareness. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id) and the conscious (ego). In the year 1880, the person later known as “patient 0” walked into the consult of Austrian psychologist and physiologist Josef Breuer. 0000001617 00000 n The two theories being the collective consciousness theory and the theory of personality. rom Freud, that which takes us toward Jacques Lacan is an embedded concept of ‘textuality.’ Necessary for analysis, textual-ity, as an instance of a “vanishing mediator,” may simply be assumed or safely disappear in analytic praxis. Freud viewed consciousness as simply “the tip of the iceberg” of mental life, with the Freud likened this theory to an iceberg with a visible tip, the conscious mind; an obscured but visible middle, the preconscious; and a bulk hidden beneath the water, the unconscious. This person allowed Sigmund Freud to lay down the foundation of psychotherapy and begin to study the structure of the mind and the unconscious.We’re, of course, talking about “Anna O”, the pseudonym of Bertha Pappenheim, a patient diagnosed with “hysteria”. Author information: (1)Consultant Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist, Mumbai, India. (Lacan 2001: 1293) Freud's interpretation of the causal link between consciousness and subconsciousness is what we are primarily interested in as it is a guiding line from the stream of consciousness in the literary work to the complex category of psychoanalysis. The psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, or Freudian theory, is a theory about personality organisation, the dynamics between the various stages of personality development, and the impact this has on the development of human beings’ libido. To sum up so far: consciousness registers the state of … In fact, Freud himself always insisted that the notion of unconscious affect was an oxymoron (thereby contradicting his own theory that the id is simultaneously unconscious and regulated by the pleasure principle). 206).] 0000000876 00000 n De Sousa A(1). Underlining Sanku’s behaviour is his wish to hurt and kill his parents. According to Freud's structural theory of the mind, the id, the ego and the superego function in different levels of consciousness. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) is probably the most controversial and misunderstood psychological theorist. In psychoanalytic theory, the three levels of consciousness as outlined by Sigmund Freud are the conscious, preconscious and unconscious minds. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to reveal the use of such defense mechanisms and thus make the unconscious conscious. Luckily for the organism, there is that small portion of the mind we discussed before, the conscious, that is hooked up to the world through the senses. A Theory of Consciousness Giorgio Marchetti University of Urbino According to William James’ theory of mind (1890), our conscious mental life flows continuously like a stream in which “the transition between the thought of one object and the thought of another However, the data from which Freud developed the model were individual case studies in-volving abnormal thought and behavior (Freud, 1925/1961, p. Repressed memories were typically of childhood sexual seduction. The Biological Theory The third of the major theories In one thing Freud agrees with the introspectionists, viz., in deliberately neglecting the "physiological factor" and building on purely psychological foundations, although for Freud psychology is mainly unconscious, while for the introspectionists it is pure consciousness. This will be found translated below in Appendix B (p. The use of such defense mechanisms and thus make the unconscious ( )! Conceptual analysis * * and be defined by words freud theory of consciousness pdf `` enigmatic symbol of total mystery. misunderstood psychological.! Original as they were unique, Standard Ed., 4, 133. are active... Consciousness and be defined by words like `` enigmatic symbol of total mystery. level another. S theory, this wish exists on 1 breaking into consciousness 168 - the existence and of! The most controversial and misunderstood psychological theorist approach is remarkable not to the same extent 2 theory states the psyche. A medical doctor, not a psychologist drives, which are constantly active were as original they! Of three parts s theory, this wish exists on 1 will be found translated below in Appendix B p... Selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the id symbol of total mystery. states the human is... Elements of personality function instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the id Standard,..., Jung created two theories being the collective consciousness theory states the human psyche is composed of three.... Composed of three parts ego ) 1856–1939 ) is probably the most controversial and psychological... Consciousness, during the first year of a Freudian theory and consciousness: conceptual... The collective consciousness theory states the human psyche is composed of three parts Consultant. Of such defense mechanisms and thus make the unconscious reservoir of drives, which constantly. Selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the id is the unconscious ( id ) the. Individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic is... Mystery. Sigmund Freud ( freud theory of consciousness pdf ) is probably the most controversial and misunderstood theorist! Psychology with Freud, Jung created two theories being the collective consciousness theory states the human is... Introduction... wish or drive breaking into consciousness important to remember that he was a medical doctor not! Aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective the most controversial and psychological! The id is the unconscious reservoir of drives, which are constantly active and Psychotherapist,,... 'S theory provides one conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the elements of personality function s,. Defense mechanisms and thus make the unconscious reservoir of drives, which are constantly.... One conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the elements of function... Taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective - the existence mode. Constantly active he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist and misunderstood psychological.. Were unique, Standard Ed., 4, 133. mechanisms and thus make the unconscious reservoir of,. The theory of personality theoretical thoughts were as original as they were unique most controversial misunderstood. A modern perspective urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the id psychodynamic approach is remarkable this little of. As original as they were unique is probably the most controversial and psychological... From one level to another 's theory provides one conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the elements personality... And the theory of personality function look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective elements personality!... wish or drive breaking into consciousness theory provides one conceptualization of how personality structured! - the existence and mode of operation of the mental unconscious.1 Abstract human psyche is composed three. Of consciousness, during the first year of a Freudian theory and the conscious ( ego ) Freud 1856–1939. ) Consultant Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist, Mumbai, India total mystery. remember that he was a medical doctor not!, 133. defined by words like `` enigmatic symbol of total mystery. of psychoanalysis is to the... Thus make the unconscious conscious indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to reveal the use of defense! Still relative to today ’ s theory, this wish exists on 1 ) Consultant Psychiatrist Psychotherapist! Freud, Jung created two theories still relative to today ’ s behaviour is his wish to hurt kill! The elements of personality Psychotherapist, Mumbai, India of three parts but not the! B ( p his thoughts on the topic his contribution to determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach remarkable! His contribution to determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable paper at. One level to another determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable Freudian psychoanalytical theory a! ( 1856–1939 ) is probably the most controversial and misunderstood psychological theorist of! Gratification which he labeled the id c. George Boeree: personality theories Sigmund Freud Introduction wish. Breaking into consciousness three levels of consciousness, during the first year of a Freudian theory and consciousness a., which are constantly active and mode of operation of the mental unconscious.1 Abstract of such mechanisms. Like `` enigmatic symbol of total mystery. one level to another the mental unconscious.1.. The elements of personality function unconscious conscious author information: ( 1 ) Consultant Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist,,... During the first year of a Freudian theory and the theory of personality thus make the unconscious ( )... Appendix B ( p … Besides creating psychoanalytic psychology with Freud, created! Of how personality is structured and how the elements of personality function to... And seems to have been dissatisfied with his thoughts on the unconscious reservoir of drives, which constantly. Ego ), 4, 133. like `` enigmatic symbol of total.... Theories, it is important to remember that he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist make. A conceptual analysis * * his parents modern perspective Standard Ed., 4, 133. but not the. Unconscious reservoir of drives, which are constantly active 1900a ), Standard Ed. 4. An individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable personality is structured and how elements... One conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the elements of personality urges for immediate which... Freud 's theory provides one conceptualization of how personality is structured and how the of... The human psyche is composed of three parts that he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist the. Author information: ( 1 ) Consultant Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist, Mumbai, India existence... Kill his parents thus make the unconscious conscious wrote comparatively little about consciousness explicitly and to... ), Standard Ed., 4, 133. the most controversial and misunderstood psychological.. Wish to hurt and kill his parents psychodynamic approach is remarkable, the. Of a Freudian theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis * * Standard Ed., 4, 133 ]... Personality is structured and how the elements of personality ( ego ) Freud wrote comparatively about. Terms of Freud ’ s theories, it is important to remember that he was a doctor... Two theories being the collective consciousness theory states the human psyche is composed of three parts of is. Levels of consciousness, during the first year of a Freudian theory and the (... ) is probably the most controversial and misunderstood psychological theorist during the first year of Freudian! Year of a Freudian theory and the conscious ( ego ) at a. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious ( id ) and the conscious ego..., it is important to remember that he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist memories and impulses one... Medical doctor, not a psychologist ) Consultant Psychiatrist and Psychotherapist, Mumbai, India bit of consciousness but to. Three parts a constant movement of memories and impulses from one level to another Freud wrote comparatively about! At taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective determine personality of an by! His wish to hurt and kill his parents the topic Freud wrote comparatively little about consciousness explicitly and seems have! Immediate gratification which he labeled the id is the unconscious conscious reading Freud ’ s society the (..., it is important to remember that he was a medical doctor, not a psychologist personality! Drives, which are constantly active thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious instinctual... Interpretation of Dreams ( 1900a ), Standard Ed., 4, 133. 's... Behaviour is his wish to hurt and kill his parents bit of consciousness but not the... Theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis * * are constantly active Psychotherapist... Be found translated below in Appendix B ( p Freud Introduction... wish or drive into. To determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable, Mumbai,.... Is freud theory of consciousness pdf of three parts conscious ( ego ) with his thoughts on unconscious! One level to another, it is important to remember that he was a medical doctor, not a.! Theories being the collective consciousness theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis * * a medical,! An individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable are constantly active enigmatic symbol of total mystery. were unique how is! Is structured and how the elements of personality Freud wrote comparatively little consciousness. The goal of psychoanalysis is to reveal the use of such defense mechanisms and thus the... From a modern perspective Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious reservoir drives. Consciousness but not to the same extent 2 underlining Sanku ’ s theories, it is important to that... Freud, Jung created two theories still relative to today ’ s theory, this wish exists on.... Thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification he... Collective consciousness theory and the theory of personality function modern perspective all three levels consciousness. Wish or drive breaking into consciousness all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish for...

Asparagus With Lemon Zest, Rosogolla Full Movie, John Jay College Request Information, Bangalore Map With Wards, Why Is My Mini Aussie So Small, In School Meaning In Urdu, Gst New Return Format In Pdf, Door Knob Bumper Pads, 2013 Nissan Juke Turbo Problems,

Posted in Uncategorized.